Analyzing U.S. Department of Education data on 19,000 men and women, Hill's team found that one year out of college, women in 1994 earned 80 percent of what their male counterparts made. By 2003, a decade after graduation, they had fallen further behind, to 69 percent of men's incomes.
While some of the gap is accounted for by career choice variations and the demands of motherhood, even women who make the same choices men make throughout the course of their careers earn less.
Controlling for the number of hours worked, parenthood and other factors, college-educated women still earned 12 percent less than their male peers, according to the report, suggesting that "the effects of gender discrimination are cumulative."
Even women who graduate with the same majors and go into the same general field as their male counterparts earn less.
The recent graduate numbers includes an apples-to-apples comparison of full-time workers who majored in the same subject, and the discrepancies are jarring. One year after graduation, female business majors are earning 81% of what male business majors earn. Among biology majors, women get paid only 75% as much as men. Even in traditionally male-dominated fields, in which women are theoretically sought after for diversity's sake, women still earn less than men. One year after graduation, female engineers make 95% of what male engineering majors do, and women who majored in math earn only 76% of what their male counterparts earn.
Ironically, women do better in school.
Women outperformed men academically, and their grade point averages were higher in every major.